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The First Serbian Rebelling

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First Serbian rebelling which started on February 14th, 1804 was not just one of the common rebelling of people, which were starting over Europe during New Ages, and that Ottoman Empire was recognizable by in centuries of it's fall. First Serbian rebelling was national and social revolution. Earlier writers of it's history had noticed similarity between American Independence War, French Revolution, Italian Carbonari wars for independence of South American states and Serbian 1776-1815 rebellings which changed the World from its root. Until 1848, Serbian revolution was the most east bourgeoisie revolution on the World. It was the big turnaround which signed begin of fight for freedom and state independence of Balkan people.

First Serbian Rebelling started after so called massacre of dukes, the big punishment expedition. It was the time, when Belgrade sovereigns executed about 70 leaders of Serbian districts in Belgrade Pasaluk. From Svistov peace (1791), Serbs in Belgrade Pasaluk had certain level of autonomy, so called duke self management. It was disestablished when janizary leaded by 4 sovereigns seceded from Porta. However, unlike three wars against Ottoman Empire, in which Serbs took a part in 18. century, since 1804 Serbian rebellions set their goals – founding of new Serbian state.

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Djordje Petrovic – Karadjordje, leader of rebelling, was pronounced as Vozd and Commandant. Rebellions restored so called Praviteljstvujusci sovjet (institution which was at the same time representative and executive) in 1804. Constitution act, which ceremonial declaration was called “Serbian freedom”, was Serbian version of Declaration of freedom for man and citizen, was adopted in 1808. Despite the fact it was constantly in war, Serbia was constantly developing. It's population doubled, from 400,000 habitants to 700,000 until 1813. Besides weapon manufacturing, handicrafts and merchantry were developing and education was crowned by founding High school, the first forerunner of University.

First Serbian Rebelling represents the big European event from the beginning of 19century. Compared with the “Big army” of 400,000 solders, that Napoleon lead to Russia, rebellion army of 25,000 people did not seem significant. However, in several occasions Serbia was attacked through Vidin, Nis and Travnik. Hundreds of solders were attacking it, but Serbia defended itself successfully, with or without help of Russia. In battles on Ivankovac 1805 and Misar 1806, rebellion army showed strategic ability equal to any Wellingtons or Blither army. Success in Belgrade blockade, that was liberated traditionally on Saint Andreas in1806, echoed round the Europe. Devoted bravery of Stevan Sindjelic on Cegr 1809, Nedic brothers on Cokesina and ruffian Veljko Petrovic in defending of Negotin, were described in epic songs and became a myth which is alive nowadays. Significance of rebelling was so obvious and so big that the first monument was built in September 1804 in Austrian city Pancevo. In 1813 contemporaries considered that monument of unseen size and incomparable beauty should be build on Deligrad, moat that was still conserved after the Belgrade fortress was occupied by Turkey in October 1813.

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One of the biggest historians on Balkan, Trajan Stojanovic, noticed that after centuries of life under Ottoman Empire, Serbia in 1804 was community which was closer to Neolithic than to traditions of Middle Ages Serbian state. However, influence of educated Serbs from abroad such were Dositej Obradovic, Bozidar Grujovic and Ivan Jugovic, made Serbia ready to stand in line with European people.

Rebellion deputations went to: Carigrad (leaded by Petar Icki), to Saint Petersburg (the first one was leaded by Prota Mateja Nendaovic) during the first months of rebelling, and to Paris. Everyone heard for Serbia in that time. Even New York Times paid attention on Serbia. At the same time, Karadjordje was Pushkin's inspiration and the most mentioned South Slav in English popular literature and newspapers during the first half of 19 century. Such Serbia tended to modernization, and revival of Serbian state.

Austria was under pressure, because it was defeated by Napoleon and partly occupied by French army. Those were the reasons why Austria was not able to be actively involved, and to stop founding of Serbian state. Paradox of history is the fact, that national and social revolution was supported by Russian Empire which was the most conservative in that time. Plans for revival of Serbia were made in 1806 and 1809 by Russian consul Rodofinkin and professor of High school Ivan Jugovic. Russian armies were fighting against Ottoman Empire on Danube until 1809, enabling survival and spreading of rebelling.

Iako je Prvi srpski ustanak ugusen, samouprava je ubrzo obnovljena, da bi posle Drugog srpskog ustanka 1815. bila uspostavljena poluatonomija na cijim je osnovama izgradjena Knezevina Srbija koja je do 1878. uspela da postepeno stekne potpunu samostalnost i zatim nezavisnost.

Historian Cedomir Antic

The Second Serbian Rebelling

Serbian people who felt freedom in first victories in First Serbian Rebelling, could not stand Turkish terror any more. In the first years after suppress of First Serbian rebelling, people were rebelling against Turks, so as response on Turkish violence, rebelling happened in Cacan area in 1814. Turkish soon suppressed it and killed about 300 captured rebels.

Serbian leaders, and Milos Obrenovic among them, tried to stop Turkish terror negotiating. Big forces did not want to put themselves in Serbian-Turkish relationships. Turkish continued to robber, violence and kill innocent people. It could not be stand any more. In village of Takovo, in April 1815 Serbian leaders met and made decision to start rebelling. Milos Obrenovic was chosen as rebelling leader.

Rebellions soon liberated most of Serbia. Bigger battles were in Ljubic, near the Cacak, and on Dubalj in Macva. In battle in Ljubic specially stood up Tanasko Rajic with his courage.

Turks wanted to suppress rebelling with force, but they were afraid of conflict with Russia. Negotiations happened, and Milos won freedom for bigger part of country. Freedom was not complete, because Serbia had to admit Turkish command and pay taxes to sultan. Duke Milos kept negotiating with Turks, so he managed to win certain independence for Serbia under highest Turkish command, which was confirmed by orders of Turkish sultan from 1830 and 1833. Trade and building churches and monuments were allowed, and Turks were expelling from Serbia. Milos Obrenovic was acknowledged right to be duke, who would be inherited by his descendants. However, Turkish garrisons were left in cities, and Serbia still had to pay taxes to sultan. Lot of areas settled with Serbs left under Turkish command.

The First Balkan War

First Balkan War started in the end of 1912. War lasted about eight months. The biggest battle was fought between Serbian and Turkish army in October 1912, near Kumanovo. After desperate fights, Turks were forced to retire. Serbian army was more careful after that. However, Turks put in order their forces and after month ago, new conflict happened near Bitolj. After three day battles, Turks retired. Serbian army liberated Kosovo and Metohija.

At the same time, Montenegrin army liberated New Pazar's Sandzak and Metohija, and united with Serbian army liberated north Albania.

Greeks and Bulgarians had success in battles too. Greeks expelled Turks from their territory. Bulgarians were stopped after their first success, but Serbs helped them and Turks were bitted

By London piece from 1913, war was ended and winner states retained liberated territories. Turks were finally expelled from Balkan Peninsula, and Macedonia was divided on three parts between Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece.

The Second Balkan War

Balkan alliance was on the way of Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy to break on east. That is why it tended to disunite allies and destroy this alliance. Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy was persuading Bulgaria to ask part of Macedonia from Serbia. Supported by Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy, Bulgaria decided to resolve conflict with war.

The Second Balkan War started at the end of Jun 1913 near Bregalnica when Bulgarian army attacked Serbian forces. Montenegro and Greece helped Serbian army. Bulgarian forces were defeated. Serbian army had success on the other fronts too. Bulgaria was forced to ask for truce only after one moth, and to gave up debatable territory in good of Serbian.

Balkan wars has multilevel significance for Serbia and Montenegro. Finally, both states were liberated from Turks and made common board with Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy, which stopped it to break on east. War success raised reputation of Serbia and Montenegro.

World War One

Battle on Cer (August 12th-August 24th, 1914) is written with gold literals in history of Serbian people. Win of Serbian army in that battle was the first alliance win in World War One (1914-1918). In determinant operation, on mountain Cer, Austrian fifth army was bitted and rejected back, over Drina.

Battle on Drina (September 6 th - November 11th, 1914) was the bloodiest battle of Serbian army in World War One, specially the battles near middle flow of Drina, on Gucevo and on Macak rock. It stopped the second offensive of Austrian-Hungarian army on Serbia.

Battle on Kolubara (November 16th - December 15th, 1914) and win of Serbian army, contributed in increasing of Serbian reputation in eyes of allies. In the final phase of battle, in only 13 days, Serbian army expelled enemy from country restored front on Drina and Sava again.

Fight on Mojkovac (January 6th to January 7th, 1916), in which Montenegro's Sandzak army successfully defended against Austrian-Hungarian offensive, enabled easier operations of Serbian army, ensuring it withdrawal through Montenegro to Albania.

Albanian calvary - Withdrawal of Serbian army (November1915 - January1916), also called “Serbian calvary through Albanian gorges”, was performed under very strong frost, hunger, exhaustion, deceases and almost everyday battles against Bulgarians, Austrian-Hungarians and Albanians. About 100.000 solders and refugees died on that legendary march-maneuver of Serbian army. Many historians compare it with Napoleon and Suvorovljev march over Alps.

Salonika Front (1916 - 1918) included battles of Antant forces against Central forces in the area from Orfan gulf, over Greek and Albanian territory, to Jon see. In September 1916, Serbian army successfully took a part in alliance's offensive, occupying Kajmakcalan after taught battles against Bulgarian forces.

Break through Salonika Front and alliance's Salonika offensive in autumn 1918, in which Serbian army took a main part, are considered as the most successful operations of World War One.

Serbia paid it's participation in World War One with one million of dead (about 22% of population). Montenegro had about 50,000 of dead (about 1/8 of population).

World War Two

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Achievements of pilots of the 6th hunting regiment on the sky over Belgrade, heroic fight of “Drava” crew on Danube, heroic act of two lieutenants of battleship in Bokakotor Gulf, bigger fights on fronts to Skadar, near Cacak, Uzice... All of them were not enough to stop fast capitulation of Yugoslavia in April war (1941). Country was robbed and decomposed, exposed to unseen terror of occupiers and their associates. But, it was not surrendered, even Serbs were victims of genocide of huge dimensions, in fascistic Independent State of Croatia (Jasenovac is known as “the biggest Serbian under ground town”).

Kadinjaca (November, 1941), Rudo (December, 1941), Igman march (January, 1942), Kozara (Jun – July, 1942), Neretva (January – March, 1943), Sutjeska (May – June, 1943), Batin battle (November, 1944), break through Srem front (April, 1945) – those re just some of most significant battles of national liberating and anti fascistic war. It elaborated National Liberating Army of Yugoslavia (NLAY), or Yugoslavian Army (YA). It was armed force which got indisputable reputation between allies' armies, and became significant factor on Mediterranean Front. It finished war with 800,000 armed warriors, as forth alliance force in Europe (after Soviet, British and American).

Newer historiography begins to discover role of Draza Mihajlovic royalist movement, and other royalist movements, in battles against occupiers, on territories of Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Herzegovina and Croatia. History has been presented by winner's side, Partizans, for years. Partizan movement was fighting revolutionary fight for their ideology simultaneously with liberation war. Our organization will not involve itself in divisions, and will let historians and time to reach the real truth.

For us, veterans are all of them, who fought for for freedom of Serbia, and we will not make any divisions between them based on ideology.

 
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